see also THE KEETOOWAH SOCIETY -- James W. Duncan
see also Chief Lewis Downing and Chief Charles Thompson (Oochalata.) by John Bartlett Meserve.
see also OFFICIAL SEALS OF THE FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES By Muriel H. Wright
see also (onsite) (offsite) - Status of Keetoowah Indians - 1946 Recognition of Keetoowah Indians by Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America.
see also EASTERN CHEROKEE CHIEFS - By John P. Brown
see also NOTES OF A MISSIONARY AMONG THE CHEROKEES
- Grant Foreman.
see also A HISTORY OF THE CHEROKEE INDIANS - BY HUGH T. CUNNINGHAM
see also THE CIVIL WAR IN THE INDIAN TERRITORY 1861
see also NECROLOGY
One hundred and forty years ago a number of traditionalists came together and formed the Keetoowah Society. The organization still exists known as the Nighthawk Keetoowahs and they meet at Stokes Stomp Grounds near Vian. Do not confuse these traditionalists with the political organization of the United Keetoowah Band that was created by the federal government in 1946. But the Nighthawk Keetoowahs on the eve of the American Civil War came together and in their bylaws reflected eloquently the issue that continually faces us. In 1860, the Keetoowah Society wrote:
" We must not surrender under any circumstances until we shall "fall to the ground united." We must lead one another by the hand with all our strength. Our government is being destroyed. We must resort to our bravery to stop it.
...Few members of men of the society met secretly and discussed the condition of the country where they lived. The name Cherokee was in danger. The Cherokee Nation was about to disintegrate. It seemed intended to drown our Cherokee Nation and destroy it. For that reason we resolved to stop from scattering or forever lose the name of Cherokee. We must love each other and abide by treaties made with the Federal government. We must cherish them in our hearts. Second, we must also abide by the treaties made with other races of people. Third, we must abide by our constitution and laws and uphold the name of the Cherokee Nation."
In 1861 the Keetoowah Society enacted a provision, which stated:
"...if any urgent and important message from the Chief of the Cherokee Nation should be received by Head Captains to be looked into, it shall be the duty of the head captains to send up the message to all parts of the Cherokee Nation. If anyone, or any one of us Keetoowah is called upon or chosen to take a message for them he shall willingly without hesitancy respond to the responsibility."
also see The Full Blood Cherokees Progress. Political, Business and Social Activities for an excellent history
KEETOOWAH BAND OF CHEROKEE INDIANS
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